Installation Points of Photovoltaic System
The home off-grid photovoltaic power generation system is mainly composed of solar panels, solar controllers, maintenance-free lead-acid batteries and AC and DC inverters as its main components. The core components are photovoltaic battery packs and controllers. The role of each component in the system is:
1. Solar panel: The solar panel is the core part of the solar power system, and it is also the most valuable part of the solar power system. Its function is to convert the sun's radiant power into electric energy, or send it to the storage battery for storage, or drive the load to work.
2. Solar controller: The function of the solar controller is to control the working status of the entire system, and to protect the battery from overcharging and over-discharging. In places with large temperature differences, a qualified controller should also have the function of temperature compensation. Other additional functions such as light control switch and time control switch should be optional options of the controller;
3. Batteries: generally lead-acid batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries or lithium batteries can also be used in small and micro systems. Its function is to store the electrical energy generated by the solar panel when there is light, and then release it when needed.
4. Inverter: The direct output of solar energy is generally 12VDC, 24VDC, 48VDC. In order to provide electrical energy to 220VAC electrical appliances, the DC power generated by the solar power generation system needs to be converted into AC power, so a DC-AC inverter is required.
Advantages of home solar off-grid photovoltaic power generation system:
(2). Easy installation, easy transportation, short construction period, stable and reliable solar power supply system, one-time investment, long-term benefit;
(3). No radiation, no pollution, energy saving and environmental protection, clean energy, safe operation, no noise, zero emission, low-carbon fashion;
(4). The quality is reliable, the product life is long, and the life of the solar panel is at least 25 years;
(5). Solar energy is almost everywhere, so photovoltaic power generation has a wide range of applications.
(6). High photoelectric conversion efficiency, large power generation per unit area.
Installation of home photovoltaic system:
1. Installation sequence
Foundation and power distribution room construction-solar cell bracket installation-solar cell square array installation and commissioning-electrical instrumentation equipment installation and commissioning-operation commissioning-trial operation-completion acceptance.
2. Installation points
(1) Storage of materials
Prepare a temporary warehouse: mainly store inverters, solar batteries, solar battery brackets, cables and other auxiliary materials for the power generation system.
(2) Material preparation
Before construction, check and accept solar cell modules, square array brackets, grid-connected inverters and other equipment, and prepare the installation facilities and the main raw materials and other auxiliary materials required for various constructions.
In order to ensure the safe operation of the system under severe weather such as thunderstorms, lightning protection measures must be taken for the system. There are mainly the following aspects:
1. The ground line is the key to lightning protection and lightning protection. While carrying out the basic construction of the power distribution room and the solar cell array, choose a thick and humid place near the array and dig a 2m deep ground line pit , Use 40 flat steel, add resistance reducing agent and lead out the ground wire, the lead wire uses 10mm2 copper core cable, the grounding resistance should be less than 4 ohms.
2. Build a lightning rod near the power distribution room, 15 meters high, and make a separate ground wire, the method is the same as above.
3. The voltage of the solar cell square array cable entering the power distribution room is DC36V, which is buried in the ground with PVC pipes and protected by lightning protection devices. In addition, the bracket of the solar panel array should be well grounded.
4. The AC output line of the inverter is protected by a lightning protection box.
Precautions for installation and debugging
1. The system should only be installed by qualified personnel. The system involves electrical energy, and members who are not familiar with qualified safety procedures are at risk.
2. Do not immerse the photovoltaic module in water or continuously expose it to sprinklers or fountains.
3. When choosing a site, avoid choosing trees, buildings, or shadow areas that would block solar modules, especially in winter. The installation of photovoltaic modules should be fixed on a permanent frame and should be inclined to the best conditions for winter performance.
4. PV modules connected in series should be installed in the same direction and angle, and installation in different directions and angles will cause energy loss due to differences in solar radiation.
5. It is strictly forbidden to short-circuit the positive and negative poles.
6. The joints must be tightened without gaps, otherwise the gaps will cause sparks.
7. Whether the fastening part of the installation structure is loose, it must be tightened.
8. Frequently use a soft cloth to remove dust and dirt on the surface of the photovoltaic module to prevent the loss of output power due to the blocking of the surface of the module. Always check whether the surface of the component is blocked by objects.
9. Be careful not to touch the bare parts of the wires or connectors, if you need to bring insulating devices (such as tools, gloves, etc.).
10. When installing and repairing the product, be sure to cover the surface of the module with cloth or other opaque materials, because it is dangerous for the module to generate high voltage under sunlight.
11. Do not immerse the photovoltaic module in water or continuously expose it to sprinklers or fountains.
12. The system cannot be placed in salt-eroded, vulcanized, and humid areas.
Warning: Solar modules are a kind of live electrical energy source, when exposed to sunlight or other light sources. The arrangement of many components can cause fatal electric shocks and burn hazards.
Economic and social benefitsGenerally, the calculation of power generation is average, which means that in the calculation of solar energy system, every day is sunny. In this case, there are actually 10 hours of light per day, but the effective light may only be 4 hours in the calculation (this value is different in different regions).
For example, a 1KW solar photovoltaic power station can generally be 1000W*0.7 (the best utilization ratio after various losses)*4 (average daily effective light)=2800WH (2.8 kWh)
The 1KW solar photovoltaic power station generates an average of 2.8 kWh per day, and can generate a total of 25,550 kWh within a life span of 25 years.
According to calculations by environmental protection experts: For every kilowatt-hour of electricity saved, 0.35 kg of standard coal and 4 liters of purified water will be saved, and at the same time 0.272 kg of carbon dust, 0.997 kg of CO2, and 0.03 kg of SO2 will be saved.
The 1KW solar monitoring system has a service life of 25 years and generates 25,550 kilowatt-hours of electricity, which can reach the following environmental protection indicators:
1. Coal saving: 0.35kg×25550÷1000=9 tons.
2. Reduce carbon dust: 0.272kg×25550÷1000=7 tons.
3. Reduce CO2 emissions: 0.997kg×25550÷1000=26 tons.
4. Reduce SO2 emissions: 0.03kg×25550÷1000=0.8 tons.
5. Water saving: 4 liters×25550÷1000=103 tons of purified water.
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